Guinea pigs, like chinchillas, ecm and doxycycline, are hystricognath rodents. They belong to the family Cavidae, which contains 14 species of animals commonly known as cavies and Patagonian hares or maras. Four digits on the forepaw and three on the hindfoot characterize Cavidae, ecm and doxycycline. A stocky build, large head, short legs, and unfurred, short ears characterize guinea pigs.
Head and body length is — mm, there is no external tail, and weight is —1, g. In South America, wild cavies inhabit rocky areas, savannas, forest edges, and swamps from Columbia and Venezuela southward to Brazil and northern Argentina.
They live in groups of up to 10 individuals and inhabit burrows that they or other animals dig, ecm and doxycycline. They are most active at night, when they forage for a variety of plant materials. The American Cavy Breeders Association recognizes 13 breeds that it divides into groups or varieties.
The most common breed is the American cavy and was known originally as the English cavy. Self cavies are a group of solid-colored animals eg, black, cream, red, lilac, beige, saffron, ecm and doxycycline, and chocolate. Nonselfs are a group made up of the coated breeds, the marked breeds, and the ticked or agouti breeds, ecm and doxycycline.
The short, wire-haired Abyssinian may look unhealthy because its coat is arranged in whorls or rosettes, giving it a ruffled, untidy appearance. An undercoat and projecting guard hairs make up the normal fur coat of a cavy.
The Rex has short guard hairs that do not appear above the level of the undercoat, the Satin breeds have an abnormal hair fiber that produces a sheen, and the Teddy breeds have a kinked or bent hair shaft that causes the coat to stand erect over the entire body.
The marked group contains Dalmatian, tortoise shell, and Himalayan varieties. Several researchers have analyzed guinea pig calls and distinguish between 7 and 11 distinct sound patterns. Although different authors have given different names to each unique sound, there is general agreement on ecm and doxycycline least 7 sounds. Many small lymphocytes are similar in size to erythrocytes.
Large lymphocytes contain Kurloff bodies, large intracytoplasmic mucopolysaccharide inclusion bodies. Kurloff bodies are seen under normal conditions in guinea pigs and are estrogen dependent.
There are few Kurloff bodies in adult males, and they are rarely seen in newborns. Like chinchillas, guinea pigs share unusual reproductive physiologic characteristics of hystricomorph rodents. They have a vaginal closure membrane that is open at estrus and parturition but sealed during ecm and doxycycline and pregnancy.
Guinea pigs have an average of 4 young per litter, with a range of 1— The young of both species are born fully furred and well developed, ecm and doxycycline. Young guinea pigs usually nurse for 21 days, although they can survive on solid food alone after 5 days. Guinea pigs have only a single pair of inguinal nipples.
Male guinea pigs have pronounced penile styles or spicules on the glans penis. Guinea pigs live 6—8 yr. As a species, guinea pigs are extremely adaptable to a great range of cancer and symptoms, although as individuals they are highly susceptible to variations in local temperature and humidity. Guinea pigs are nervous animals and may refuse to drink or eat for a period after any significant change in their location, feed, or husbandry.
The effect of environmental changes on guinea pigs is minimal or nonexistent when two animals are kept together. If a sick guinea pig must be kept in hospital, housing a cagemate with the sick animal reduces stress, ecm and doxycycline. Ecm and doxycycline pigs live in family units centered on an alpha male.
Mature males, and especially strangers, will fight. However, two males raised together from a young age or a group of nonbreeding females will not encounter dominance problems.
Social problems are diminished with castration and ovariohysterectomy, but learned behavior in adult males after castration may still make them antisocial. They dirty their water bowls or sipper tubes with food when they drink. They do not lick sipper tubes without training, defecate indiscriminately, and are prone to sit in and soil their food bowls and sleeping areas. Constipation and milk allergy, they are generally good eaters and not as fussy as rabbits.
Guinea pigs produce two types of fecal pellets: However, when food is limited, guinea pigs ingest feces during parts of the day when food is unavailable. Guinea pigs are easy to hold and restrain. Although they do not bite, very young guinea pigs may nip. Fatigue, lack of interest in ecm and doxycycline, and light body weight are often general signs of illness. Sick guinea pigs may show evidence of weight loss, hunched posture, abnormal gait, drawn in abdomen, scruffy fur, or labored breathing.
They may be lethargic or unresponsive to stimulation. Respiratory and GI conditions are most commonly encountered; thus, ocular or nasal discharges or diarrhea may be present. Feet should be examined for sores or broken nails. Teeth may sometimes overgrow and should be checked. However, the mouth is small, and examination of the oral cavity is difficult. Ears and eyes should be examined for discharges or inflammation, and the submandibular area should be examined for swellings.
Venipuncture can be difficult in guinea pigs because of the lack of obviously accessible peripheral veins. The ecm and doxycycline saphenous vein and the cephalic vein are useful to draw small amounts of blood. For large amounts of blood, the anterior vena cava can be used, with the guinea pig under anesthesia.
This technique requires practice. If performed incorrectly, there is a risk of death associated with intrathoracic, pericardial, or pulmonary hemorrhage. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus previously S zooepidemicus may be carried in ecm and doxycycline nasopharynx as a latent infection. Abrasions of the oral cavity eg, molar malocclusion allow bacteria to be transported to draining lymph nodes of the head and neck, ecm and doxycycline, causing suppurative lymphadenitis.
Clinically, guinea pigs present with large, ecm and doxycycline, unilateral swellings in the neck. The affected animal is often in good flesh and shows no other signs of ecm and doxycycline. The differential diagnosis should always include cavian leukemia. Treatment is surgical excision of the affected lymph nodes and systemic antibiotic treatment.
Bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity should always be recommended. Streptococcus pneumoniae may be carried in nares as an inapparent infection. Predisposing factors for development of bacterial pneumonia are changes in environmental temperature, humidity, or ventilation. This ecm and doxycycline occurs in winter in guinea pigs kept outside. The young, old, and pregnant are the most susceptible. Clinical signs of pneumonia are dyspnea, wheezy breathing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and coughing.
The affected guinea pig becomes depressed and anorectic. S pneumoniae infections are nearly always associated with middle ear infection and head tilt. Increased radiodensity of the affected tympanic bulla may be seen on radiographs, ecm and doxycycline.
A major differential diagnosis for pneumonia is Bordetella bronchiseptica infection. Rabbits may harbor B bronchiseptica in their respiratory tracts without developing disease. However, this organism is an aggressive pathogen in guinea pigs, causing pneumonia, conjunctivitis, otitis media, abortions, and stillbirths. The clinical signs include anorexia, ecm and doxycycline, inappetence, nasal and ocular discharge, dyspnea, and often sudden death this could also include S pneumoniae and S equi zooepidemicus.
Rabbits and guinea pigs should not be housed together as pets. Most isolates are sensitive to doxycycline 2. Salmonella infections were historically common in guinea pigs in research colonies. With present standards of husbandry, rodent control, and good quality feed, the disease rarely occurs. It is most likely seen when guinea pigs are kept outside and wild rodents have access to their feed.
Disease is more often seen in young or stressed animals. Infection may be subclinical, and diarrhea is rarely present. Clinical signs include conjunctivitis, fever, lethargy, anorexia, rough fur, palpable hepatosplenomegaly, cervical lymphadenitis, and abortion in pregnant sows.
Mortality is often high in epizootic outbreaks. If animals recover, organisms may be shed intermittently. Diagnosis is accomplished by isolating the organism from blood, ocular secretions, lymph ecm and doxycycline, or spleen. Because of zoonotic considerations and the potential for a carrier state, treatment is not recommended.
Chronic dermatitis especially of the forepaws is a common condition usually seen in obese guinea pigs housed on wire or abrasive floors. Poor sanitation is also a predisposing factor. The feet are swollen and hairless with ulcers and scabs 1—3 cm in diameter on the plantar surface, ecm and doxycycline. Staphylococcus aureus is the usual causative agent and probably enters the beth miller md and uk asthma through a cutaneous wound, ecm and doxycycline.
Awns and straw in the bedding can also cause foot punctures. The inflammation ecm and doxycycline progress to osteoarthritis and systemic amyloidosis secondary to chronic staphylococcal infection. Surgical treatment is often unsuccessful, because there is rarely an abscess to be excised or drained but rather a diffuse cellulitis that infiltrates surrounding tissue. Treatment involves housing the affected guinea pig on clean, ecm and doxycycline, dry, soft bedding, topical or parenteral administration of antibiotics, and foot bandages as needed.
Unfortunately, the condition may not respond to therapy. Chlamydial conjunctivitis is one of the most common causes of infectious conjunctivitis in guinea pigs.