Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. The American Cancer Society estimates that 12, diagnoses of cervical cancer will be made by the end of in the United States. More than 4, women in the U. The majority of cervical cancer cases are caused by HPV human papillomavirus. Here are some key points about cervical cancer. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. In the early stages of cervical cancer, a person may experience no symptoms at all.
As a result, women should have regular cervical smear, or Pap, tests. A Pap test is preventive. It aims not to detect cancer but to reveal any cell changes that indicate that cancer could develop, so that early action can be taken. The most common symptoms of cervical cancer are:. These symptoms can have other causes, including infection. Anyone who experiences any of these symptoms should see a doctor.
Working out the stage of a cancer is important as it helps decide what kind of treatment can be effective. Staging aims to assess how far the cancer has developed and whether it has reached nearby structures or more distant organs.
There are different ways of describing the stages, but a 4-stage system is commonly used. Cancer cells have grown from the surface into deeper tissues of the cervix, and possibly into the uterus and to nearby lymph nodes. The cancer has is now beyond the cervix and uterus, but not as far as the walls of the pelvis or the lower part of the vagina. It may or may not affect nearby lymph nodes. Cancer cells are present in the lower part of the vagina or the walls of the pelvis, and it may be blocking the ureters, the tubes that carry urine from the bladder.
The cancer affects the bladder or rectum and is growing out of the pelvis. It may or may not affect the lymph nodes. Later in stage 4, it will spread to distant organs, including the liver, bones, lungs, and lymph nodes. It is important to undergo screening and to see a doctor if any symptoms occur, as early treatment increases the chance of survival.
Cancer is the result of the uncontrolled division and growth of abnormal cells. Most of the cells in our body have a set lifespan and when they die, new cells are produced to replace them. This results in an excessive accumulation of cells, dying and cervical cancer symptoms, which eventually forms a lump, otherwise known as a tumor.
Scientists are not completely sure why cells become cancerous. Dying and cervical cancer symptoms, there are some risk factors that are known to increase the risk of developing cervical cancer. These risk factors include:. A sexually transmitted virus. There are more than different types of HPV, at least 13 of which can cause cervical cancer.
Having many sexual partners or becoming sexually active early: Cervical cancer-causing HPV types are nearly always transmitted as a result of sexual contact with an diabetes and tatoos individual. Women who have had many sexual partners generally have a higher risk of becoming infected with HPV. This raises dying and cervical cancer symptoms risk of developing cervical cancer.
A weakened immune system: The risk is higher in those with HIV or AIDSand people who have undergone a transplant, dying and cervical cancer symptoms, necessitating the use of immunosuppressive medications. High levels of stress over a sustained period may make it harder to fight off HPV. A study published in supported this.
The reseachers found that: Giving birth at a very young age: Women who give birth before the age of 17 years are significantly more likely to develop cervical cancer, compared with women who have their first dying and cervical cancer symptoms after the age of 25 years. Women who have had at least three children in separate pregnancies are more likely to develop cervical cancer, compared with women development of ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel have never had children.
Other sexually transmitted diseases STD: Chlamydia, gonorrheaand syphilis increase the risk of developing cervical cancer. Cervical cancer treatment options include surgery, radiotherapychemotherapyor combinations of these. Treatment for early-stage cervical cancer, when it is confined to the cervix, has a good success rate.
The further the cancer has spread out of the area it originated from, the lower the success rate tends to be. Surgery is commonly used when the cancer is confined to the cervix. Radiotherapy may be used after surgery if a doctor believes there may still be cancer cells inside the body.
Radiotherapy may also be used to reduce the risk of recurrence cancer coming back. If the surgeon wants to shrink the tumor to make it easier to operate, the person may receive chemotherapy although this is not a very common approach. Advanced cancer is also referred to as invasive cancer because it dying and cervical cancer symptoms invaded other areas of the body. This type of cancer requires more extensive treatment, which will typically involve either radiotherapy or a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
In the later stages of cancer, palliative therapy is administered to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Radiotherapy is also known as radiation therapy, dying and cervical cancer symptoms, radiation oncology, and XRT. It involves the use of beams of high-energy X-rays or particles radiation to destroy cancer cells. Radiation that is aimed at the pelvic area may cause the following side effects, some of which may not emerge until after the treatment is over:.
Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals medication to treat any disease. In dying and cervical cancer symptoms context, dying and cervical cancer symptoms, it refers to the destruction of cancer cells, dying and cervical cancer symptoms.
Chemotherapy for cervical cancer, as with most other cancers, is used to target cancer cells that surgery cannot or did not remove, or to help the symptoms of people with advanced cancer.
Side effects of chemotherapy can vary, and they depend on the specific drug being used, dying and cervical cancer symptoms. Below is a list of the more common side effects:. Participating in a clinical trial may be the best treatment option for some people.
Many of the current treatments that are available are the results of clinical trials. Clinical trials are dying and cervical cancer symptoms integral part of the cancer research process. They are done to determine how safe and effective new treatments are, dying and cervical cancer symptoms, and whether they are better than existing ones. People who participate in clinical trials are contributing to diabetes and cognitive impairment research and innovation.
The stage at which cervical cancer is diagnosed can help indicate the chances that a person will survive for at least 5 years more years. These are average survival rates and do not apply to everyone. In some cases, dying and cervical cancer symptoms, treatment is successful up to stage 4. There are a number of measures that can be taken to reduce the chances of developing cervical cancer.
The link between the development of cervical cancer and some types of HPV is clear. If dying and cervical cancer symptoms female adheres to current HPV vaccination programs, cervical cancer could potentially be reduced.
There are other strains which can cause dying and cervical cancer symptoms cancer. Using a condom during sex helps protect from HPV infection. Regular cervical screening will make it much more likely that signs of cancer are picked up early and dealt with before the condition can develop, or spread too far. Screening does not detect cancer but detects changes to the cells of the cervix.
The more sexual partners a woman has, the higher the risk of transmitting the HPV virus, which can lead to a higher likelihood of developing cervical cancer. The younger a female is when she has her first sexual intercourse, the higher the risk of HPV infection. The longer she delays it, dying and cervical cancer symptoms, the lower her risk. Women who smoke and are infected with HPV have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer than people who do not.
Women aged 30 years and over are advised to undergo a regular Pap, or cervical smear, test, to detect early signs of cancer of the uterus and cervix. HPV testing can be done at the same time.
Screening does not detect cancer, but it looks for abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix. If left untreated, some abnormal cells can eventually develop into cancer. This test determines whether the patient is infected with any of the HPV types that are the most likely to cause cervical cancer. It involves collecting cells from the cervix for lab testing.
If there are signs and symptoms of cervical cancer, or if the Pap test reveals abnormal cells, additional tests may be recommended.
Article last updated by Yvette Brazier on Thu 14 December