Medically reviewed on March 1, Diamox is a white to faintly yellowish white crystalline, odorless powder, weakly acidic, very slightly soluble in water, and slightly soluble in alcohol, diamox and of teratogenicity.
The chemical name for Diamox is N- 5-Sulfamoyl-1,3, 4-thiadiazolyl acetamide and has the following chemical structure:. Diamox and of teratogenicity SEQUELS are extended-release capsules, for oral administration, diamox and of teratogenicity, each containing mg of acetazolamide and the following inactive ingredients:. Diamox is a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, effective in the control of fluid secretion e.
Diamox is not a mercurial diuretic. Rather, it is a non-bacteriostatic sulfonamide possessing a chemical structure and pharmacological activity distinctly different from the bacteriostatic sulfonamides. Diamox is an enzyme inhibitor that acts specifically on carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction involving the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of carbonic acid.
In the eye, this inhibitory action of acetazolamide decreases the secretion of aqueous humor and results in a drop in intraocular pressure, a reaction considered desirable in cases of glaucoma and even in certain non-glaucomatous conditions.
Evidence seems to indicate that Diamox has utility as an adjuvant in treatment of certain dysfunctions of the central nervous system e. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in this area appears to retard abnormal, diamox and of teratogenicity, paroxysmal, excessive discharge from central nervous system neurons.
The diuretic effect of Diamox is due to its action in the kidney on the reversible reaction involving hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid. The result is renal loss of HCO 3 ion, which carries out sodium, water, and potassium. Alkalinization of the urine and promotion of diuresis are thus affected.
Alteration in ammonia metabolism occurs due to increased reabsorption of ammonia by the renal tubules as a result of urinary alkalinization. Diamox SEQUELS provide prolonged action to inhibit aqueous humor secretion for 18 to 24 hours after each dose, whereas tablets act for only eight to 12 hours. Plasma concentrations of acetazolamide peak from three to six hours after administration of Diamox SEQUELS, compared to diamox and of teratogenicity to four hours with tablets.
The Diamox treated climbers also had less difficulty in sleeping. For adjunctive treatment of: Diamox is also indicated for the prevention or amelioration of symptoms associated with acute mountain sickness despite gradual ascent. Hypersensitivity to acetazolamide or any excipients in the formulation. Since acetazolamide is a sulfonamide derivative, cross sensitivity between acetazolamide, diamox and of teratogenicity, sulfonamides and other sulfonamide derivatives is possible.
It is contraindicated in patients with cirrhosis because of the risk of development of hepatic encephalopathy. Long-term administration of Diamox is contraindicated in patients with chronic non-congestive angle-closure glaucoma since it may permit organic closure of the angle to occur while the worsening glaucoma is masked by lowered intraocular pressure.
Fatalities have occurred, although rarely, due to severe reactions to sulfonamides including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, anaphylaxis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and other blood dyscrasias. Sensitizations may recur when a sulfonamide is readministered irrespective of the route of administration.
If signs of hypersensitivity or other serious reactions occur, discontinue use of this drug. Caution is advised for patients receiving concomitant high-dose aspirin and Diamox, as anorexia, tachypnea, lethargy, metabolic acidosis, coma, and death have been reported.
Increasing the dose often results in a decrease in diuresis. Under certain circumstances, however, very large doses have been given in conjunction with other diuretics in order to secure diuresis in complete refractory failure. Adverse reactions common to all sulfonamide derivatives may occur: Caution is advised for early detection of such reactions and the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
In patients with pulmonary obstruction or emphysema where alveolar ventilation may be impaired, Diamox which may precipitate or aggravate acidosis should be used with caution. Gradual ascent is desirable to try to avoid acute mountain sickness. If rapid ascent is undertaken and Diamox is used, it should be noted that such use does not obviate the need for prompt descent if severe forms of high altitude sickness occur, i. Caution is advised for patients receiving concomitant high-dose aspirin diamox and of teratogenicity Diamox, diamox and of teratogenicity, as anorexia, tachypnea, lethargy, metabolic acidosis, coma, and death have been reported see WARNINGS.
Both increases and decreases in blood glucose have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus. Acetazolamide treatment may cause electrolyte imbalances, including hyponatremia and hypokalemia, as well as metabolic acidosis. Therefore, periodic monitoring of serum electrolytes is recommended.
Some adverse reactions to acetazolamide, such as drowsiness, fatigue, and myopia, may impair the ability to drive and operate machinery. To monitor for hematologic reactions common to all sulfonamides, it is recommended that a baseline CBC and platelet count be obtained on patients prior to initiating Diamox therapy and at regular intervals during therapy. If significant changes occur, early discontinuance and institution of appropriate therapy are important.
Periodic monitoring of serum electrolytes is recommended. Diamox diamox and of teratogenicity phenytoin metabolism with increased serum levels of phenytoin.
This may increase or enhance the occurrence of osteomalacia in some patients receiving chronic phenytoin therapy. Caution is advised in patients receiving chronic concomitant therapy. By decreasing the gastrointestinal absorption of primidone, diamox and of teratogenicity, Diamox biochemically processed and estradiol decrease serum concentrations of primidone diamox and of teratogenicity its metabolites, with a consequent possible decrease in anticonvulsant effect.
Caution is advised when beginning, diamox and of teratogenicity, discontinuing, or changing the dose of Diamox in patients receiving primidone. Because of possible additive effects with other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, concomitant use is not advisable.
Acetazolamide decreases urinary excretion of amphetamine and may enhance the magnitude and duration of their effect. Acetazolamide may prevent the urinary antiseptic effect of methenamine. Acetazolamide increases lithium excretion and the lithium may be decreased. Acetazolamide and sodium bicarbonate used concurrently increase the risk of renal calculus formation. Sulfonamides may give false negative or decreased values for urinary phenolsulfonphthalein and phenol red elimination values for urinary protein, serum non-protein, and serum uric acid.
Acetazolamide may produce an increased level of crystals in the urine. Acetazolamide interferes with the HPLC method of assay for theophylline. Interference with the theophylline assay by acetazolamide depends on the solvent used in the extraction; acetazolamide may not interfere with other assay methods for theophylline. Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential diabetes type one and type two Diamox have not been conducted.
In a bacterial mutagenicity assay, Diamox was not mutagenic when evaluated with and without metabolic activation.
The drug had no effect on fertility when administered in the diet to male and female rats at a daily intake of up to 4 times the recommended human dose of mg in a 50 kg individual.
Acetazolamide, administered orally or parenterally, has been shown to be teratogenic defects of the limbs in mice, rats, hamsters, and rabbits.
There are no diamox and of teratogenicity and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Acetazolamide should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Diamox, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to assessment and treatment plan the drug diamox and of teratogenicity into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Acetazolamide should only be used by nursing diamox and of teratogenicity if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the child. Growth retardation has been reported in children receiving long-term therapy, believed secondary to chronic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, diamox and of teratogenicity, which can be severe, may occur in the elderly with reduced renal function. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and concomitant disease always tired and thirsty zoloft other drug therapy.
Headache, malaise, fatigue, fever, diamox and of teratogenicity, pain at injection site, flushing, growth retardation in children, flaccid paralysis, anaphylaxis. Blood dyscrasias such as aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, diamox and of teratogenicity, thrombocytopenic purpura, melena.
Abnormal liver function, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic insufficiency, fulminant hepatic necrosis. Drowsiness, paresthesia including numbness and tingling of extremities and facedepression, excitement, ataxia, confusion, convulsions, diamox and of teratogenicity, dizziness. Allergic skin reactions including urticaria, photosensitivity, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis. Crystalluria, increased risk of nephrolithiasis with long-term therapy, hematuria, glycosuria, renal failure, polyuria.
No deficiency and toxicity of vitamins antidote is known. Treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Electrolyte imbalance, development of an acidotic state, and central nervous system effects might be expected to occur. Serum electrolyte levels particularly diamox and of teratogenicity and blood pH levels should be monitored. Supportive measures are required to restore electrolyte and pH balance. The acidotic state can usually be corrected by the administration of bicarbonate.
Despite its high intraerythrocytic distribution and plasma protein binding properties, Diamox may be dialyzable. This may be particularly important in the management of Diamox overdosage when complicated by the presence of renal failure. The recommended dosage is 1 capsule mg two times a day. Usually 1 capsule is administered in the morning and 1 capsule in the evening. It may be necessary to adjust the dose, but it has usually been found that dosage in excess of 2 capsules 1 g does not produce an increased effect.
The dosage should be adjusted with careful individual attention both to symptomatology and clomid and normal ovulation tension. In all cases, continuous supervision by a physician is advisable. In those unusual instances where adequate control is not obtained by the twice-a-day administration of Diamox Diamox and of teratogenicity, the desired control may be established by means of Diamox tablets or parenteral.
Use tablets or parenteral in accordance with the more frequent dosage schedules recommended for these dosage forms, such as mg every four hours, or an initial dose of mg followed by mg or mg every four hours, depending on the case in question. Dosage is mg to mg daily, in divided doses using tablets or extended-release capsules as appropriate. In circumstances of rapid ascent, such as in rescue or military operations, the higher dose level of mg is recommended.
It is preferable to initiate dosing 24 to 48 hours before ascent and to continue for 48 hours while at high altitude, or longer as necessary to control symptoms. Orange opaque cap and orange opaque body filled with white to off-white pellets. Imprinted in black ink, Diamox Hydrocephalus acetazolamideDiamox SequelsMore Glaucoma nadololacetazolamidepilocarpine ophthalmicCombiganmitomycin ophthalmicCorgardMore By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the Drugs.
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