Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. People with diabetes insipidus produce excessive amounts of urine, resulting in frequent urination and thirst. However, the underlying cause of these two symptoms differs from types 1 and 2 diabetes.
The disease takes two main forms: Mephrogenic diabetes insipidus and central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus. Central diabetes insipidus occurs when the pituitary gland fails to secrete the hormone vasopressin, which regulates bodily fluids. In nephrogenic culture and mental illness in kenya insipidus, vasopressin secretion is normal, but the kidneys do not correctly respond to the hormone, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia.
Diabetes insipidus affects roughly 1 in every 25, people in the United Diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia. Here are some key points about diabetes insipidus. More detail and supporting information is in the body of this article.
The main symptom of all cases of diabetes insipidus is frequently needing to pass high volumes of diluted urine. In this case, results from the loss of water through urine. The thirst prompts the person with diabetes insipidus to drink large volumes of water. The need to urinate can disturb sleep. The volume of urine passed each day can be anywhere between 3 liters and 20 liters, and up to 30 liters in cases of central diabetes insipidus.
Another secondary symptom is dehydration due to the loss of water, especially in children who may not be able to communicate their thirst. Children may become listless and feverish, experience vomiting and diarrheaand may show delayed growth. Other people unable to help themselves to water, such as people with dementiaare also at risk of dehydration. Extreme dehydration can lead to hypernatremia, a condition in which the sodium concentration of the serum in the blood becomes very high due to low water retention.
The cells of the body also lose water. Hypernatremia can lead to neurological symptoms, such as overactivity in the brain and diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia muscles, confusion, seizures, or even coma, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia. Without treatment, central diabetes inspidus can lead to permanent kidney damage.
In nephrogenic DI, serious complications are rare, so long as water intake is sufficient, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia. Diabetes insipidus becomes a serious problem only for people who cannot replace the fluid that is lost in the urine. Access to water and other fluids makes the condition manageable.
If there is a treatable underlying cause of the high urine output, such as diabetes mellitus or drug use, addressing this should help resolve the diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia insipidus. For central and pregnancy-related diabetes insipidus, drug treatment can correct the fluid imbalance by replacing vasopressin. For nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the kidneys will require treatment. Care should be taken not to overdose, as this can lead to excessive water retention and, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia, in rare, severe cases, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia, hyponatremia and fatal water intoxication.
The drug is otherwise generally safe when used at diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia dosages, with few side effects. It is, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia, however, not effective if diabetes insipidus occurs as a result of kidney dysfunction. Mild cases of central diabetes insipidus may not need hormone replacement and can diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia managed through increased water intake.
A doctor may also advise a low-salt diet, and a person with diabetes insipidus may be referred to a nutritionist to organize a diet plan. Reducing caffeine and protein intake and removing processed foods from the diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia can be effective steps to controlling water retention, as well as consuming foods with high water content, such as melons.
Both types of diabetes insipidus are linked to a hormone called vasopressin but occur in different ways, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia. Vasopressin promotes water retention in the kidneys.
This also keeps blood pressure at a healthy level. The main symptom, excessive urine output, can have other causes. These would usually be ruled out before making a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. The condition can be present from birth, or primary. Secondary central diabetes insipidus is acquired later in life.
The cause diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia primary central diabetes insipidus is often unknown. Some causes result from an abnormality in the gene responsible diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia vasopressin secretion. The secondary type is acquired through diseases and injuries that affect how vasopressin is produced.
These can include brain lesions resulting from head injuries, cancersor brain surgery. Other body-wide conditions cannabus and protonix infections can also trigger central coumadin and vitamin e insipidus.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can also be inherited or acquired. This type affects the response of the kidneys to vasopressin. This affects water balance to varying degrees.
In rare cases, pregnancy can cause a disturbance of vasopressin, especially during the third trimester. This occurs due to the placenta releasing an enzyme that degrades vasopressin. Gestational diabetes insipidus is treatable during gestation and resolves 2 or 3 weeks following childbirth.
The condition affects only a few women out of everywomen who are pregnant. Fluid imbalance can also occur after fluids diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia administered intravenously IV. In these cases, the rate of the drip is stopped or slowed, and the need to urinate resolves. High-protein tube feeds may also increase urine output. The water deprivation test is diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia reliable test to help diagnose diabetes insipidus.
However, the test diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia to be performed by a specialist, as it can be dangerous without proper supervision. The water deprivation test involves allowing a patient to become increasingly dehydrated while taking blood and urine samples.
In addition to managing the dangers of dehydration, close supervision also allows psychogenic polydipsia to be definitively ruled out. This condition causes a person to compulsively or habitually drink large volumes of water. Someone with psychogenic polydipsia may try to drink some water during this test, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia, despite strict instructions diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia drinking.
Samples taken during the water deprivation test are assessed to determine the concentration of urine and blood, and to measure levels of electrolytes, particularly sodium, in the blood. Under normal circumstances, dehydration triggers the secretion of vasopressin from the pituitary gland in the brain, telling the kidneys to conserve water and concentrate the urine. In diabetes insipidus, either insufficient vasopressin is released, or the kidneys are resistant to the hormone.
Testing these dysfunctions will help define and treat the type of diabetes insipidus. The two types of the condition are further defined if the urine concentration then responds to injection or nasal spray of vasopressin.
If the kidneys do not respond to the synthetic vasopressin, the cause is likely to be nephrogenic. Before the water deprivation test is carried out by specialists, investigations are done to rule out other explanations for the high volumes of diluted urine, including:.
Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are not related to one another. Their symptoms, however, can be similar. Doctors would taste the urine to gauge sugar content. If the urine tasted sweet, it meant that too much sugar was leaving the body in the urine, and the doctor would reach a diabetes mellitus diagnosis.
However, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia, if the urine tasted bland or neutral, it meant that water concentration was too high, and diabetes inspidus would be diagnosed.
In diabetes mellitus, elevated blood sugar prompts the production of large volumes of urine to help remove the excess sugar from the body. In diabetes insipidus, it is the water balance system that is not functioning correctly. Diabetes mellitus is far more common than diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus, however, progresses far more rapidly. Diabetes inspidus is often difficult or impossible to prevent, as it results either from genetic problems or other conditions.
However, symptoms can be managed effectively. Article last updated by Adam Felman on Fri 19 January Visit our Endocrinology category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Endocrinology. All references are available in the References tab.
The New England Journal of Medicine, Novel mutations associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A clinical-genetic study [Abstract].
European Journal of Pediatrics, 10 Diabetes insipidus vs mellitus. Diet for diabetes insipidus, diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia. Transient diabetes insipidus following cardiopulmonary bypass [Abstract]. Disruption of prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 impairs urinary concentration via decreasing aquaporin 2 in renal collecting ducts [Abstract].