When people have diabetesthe body either does not make enough insulin or cannot use what it has effectively. As a result, the amount of sugar in the blood becomes higher than it should be. Glucose, or blood sugar, is the main power source for the human body. It comes from the food people eat, diabetes and effects on body.
The hormone insulin helps the cells of the body convert glucose into fuel. Fortunately, taking a proactive approach to this chronic disease through medical care, lifestyle changes, and medication can help limit its effects. Diabetes can damage large blood vessels, causing macrovascular disease.
It can also damage small blood vessels, causing what is called microvascular disease, diabetes and effects on body. Complications from macrovascular disease include heart attack and stroke. However, macrovascular disease can be prevented by:. Microvascular disease can cause eye, kidney, and nerve problems, diabetes and effects on body good control of diabetes can help prevent these complications. Excess blood sugar decreases the elasticity of blood vessels and causes them to narrow, impeding blood flow.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute say diabetes is as big a risk factor for heart disease as smoking or high cholesterol. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Diabetes and effects on body CDCthe risk of stroke or dying of heart disease increases by percent for adults with diabetes. When people have diabetes, they can develop neuropathyor nerve damage.
This is again due to blood vessels not delivering enough oxygen. According to the CDCroughly one in two people diagnosed with diabetes have some level of nerve damage. Elsewhere, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases say nerve problems affect percent of people with diabetes.
Nerve damage usually happens some 25 years or more after diagnosis. The most common form is peripheral neuropathywhich causes pain and numbness in:. Other forms of neuropathy affect the autonomic involuntary nervous system and internal organs, or the hips and upper legs. Over time, diabetes and effects on body blood sugar levels damage blood vessels in the kidneys. This damage prevents the breast cancer and fungus from filtering waste out of the blood.
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, diabetes and effects on body, diabetes is one of the principal causes of kidney disease.
Similarly, the American Diabetes Association say diabetes was the main cause for 44 percent of new kidney failure cases in The American Diabetes Association report that Diabetes is the most frequently identified cause of gastroparesis.
This is a condition that causes the stomach to slow the movement of food into the small intestine. Diabetes-related damage to blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system may have a negative effect on sexual function.
Men with diabetes are up to three times more likely to experience erectile dysfunction than men who do not have diabetes. They tend to develop the condition earlier as well. People with diabetes do not heal as quickly as others. This is, again, due to poor circulation, which reduces the flow of:. High blood glucose levels cause blood vessels to become narrower and make arteries less flexible.
This limits the flow of blood and oxygen and leads to further injury to bodily processes and organs, as cited above. People with diabetes need to be very careful with their feet, because many aspects of the disease can damage them. If very severe, diabetes and effects on body can lead to amputation. Neuropathy affecting the feet can keep people from feeling common discomforts, such as a blister. If a blister is ignored, poor circulation can slow healing and encourage infections, which may become very serious.
Callusesfoot sores, and dry skin can also be problems for people with diabetes. High blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels of the retina. Over time, this can lead to blurred vision, reduced vision, and even blindness. In addition, the CDC point out that people with diabetes are more likely to develop cataracts than those without it.
Roundish, brown, scaly patches develop in the harmless skin condition known as diabetic dermopathy. More severe skin problems may include diabetic ulcers. There are open wounds, which are extremely slow to heal. Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum NLD starts as a raised area and can turn violet, and become itchy and sore. This rare condition may require treatment if the sores open. Finally, diabetic blisters are linked to uncontrolled blood glucose levels.
Eruptive xanthomatosis can occur, because of very high triglycerides that can be seen with the very high sugars. People with diabetes tend to develop more serious heart problems at an earlier age than people without the condition. Inpeople with diabetes aged 20 years-plus were 1.
In addition, diabetes frequently develops at the same time as other conditions, which stress the heart, diabetes and effects on body, such as obesity. High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease. According to the CDC7 out of 10 adults with diabetes have hypertension. This is a very serious condition usually only affecting people with type 1 diabetes. When high blood glucose levels are not treated, the body uses toxic diseases and conditions asthma called ketones for energy.
These ketones build up in the blood causing dry mouthnausea, stomach pains, diabetes and effects on body of breath, and even diabetic coma and death.
A hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state HHS occurs when blood sugars are extremely high. This happens more often in type 2 diabetes. A person develops HHS over a period of diabetes and effects on body and can become very dehydrated. They can also seem confused and even slip into a coma. Metabolic syndrome is linked to inactivity or being overweight, and it increases the risk for heart diseases and stroke.
In the short term, one of the most apparent effects of diabetes is pronounced ups and downs in blood sugar levels. In the long-term, high levels of sugar in the blood damage blood vessels and nerves. People who have had diabetes for a long time are more likely to develop heart disease. Eye problems and vision loss also appear more frequently in people who have had diabetes for several years. Kidney damage, too, worsens the longer an individual has diabetes. Although the condition is very serious, many individuals with diabetes lead active, happy, and fulfilling lives, diabetes and effects on body.
This is largely due to lifestyle changes they make and effective medical care, diabetes and effects on body. Article last reviewed by Wed 17 May Visit our Diabetes category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Diabetes.
All references are available in the References tab. Expanded ABCs of diabetes. Clinical Diabetes, 21 3 Diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. When your blood glucose level goes too high. How diabetes affects wound healing.
Nerve damage diabetic neuropathies. What is diabetic heart disease? MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.
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