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Child abuse and mental illnesses

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Get the facts on common mental disorders, child abuse and mental illnesses, such as those related to anxiety, attention deficit, conduct, depression, schizophrenia, child abuse and mental illnesses, and trauma.

The following are descriptions of the most common categories of mental illness in the United States. Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear or anxiety that is difficult to control and negatively and substantially impacts daily functioning. Fear refers to the emotional response to a real or perceived threat while anxiety is the anticipation of a future threat. These disorders can range from specific fears called phobiassuch as child abuse and mental illnesses fear of flying or public speaking, to more generalized feelings of worry and tension.

Anxiety disorders typically develop in childhood and persist to adulthood. Specific anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder GADpanic disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder social phobia.

Phobias and generalized anxiety usually first appear around age 11, and they are the most prevalent anxiety disorders in adults. Evidence suggests that many anxiety disorders may be caused by a combination of genetics, biology, and environmental factors. Adverse childhood experiences may also contribute to risk for developing anxiety disorders. Children with ADHD have difficulty performing well in school, interacting with other children, and following through on tasks.

Adults with ADHD are often extremely distractible and have significant difficulties with organization. There are three sub-types of the disorder:. ADHD is one of the more common mental disorders diagnosed among children. The disorder occurs four times as often among boys than girls.

It is estimated that the prevalence of ADHD among adults is 2. Current research suggests that ADHD has a high degree of heritability, however, the exact gene or constellation of genes that give rise to the disorder are not known. Environmental risk factors may include low birth weight, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, exposure to lead, and history of child maltreatment. The three overarching features of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattentive children may have trouble paying close attention to details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, are easily distracted, have difficulty following through on tasks, such as homework assignments, or quickly become bored with a task.

Hyperactivity may be defined by fidgeting or squirming, excessive talking, running about, child abuse and mental illnesses, or difficulty sitting still. People with bipolar and related disorders experience atypical, dramatic swings in mood, and activity levels that go from periods of feeling intensely happy, irritable, and impulsive to periods asthma and fireplace intense sadness and feelings of hopelessness.

Individuals with this disorder experience discrete mood episodes, characterized as either a:. People exhibiting these symptoms are most frequently identified as having one of two types of bipolar disorders: The bipolar II diagnosis is used when there has been a more regular occurrence of depressive episodes along with a hypomanic episode, child abuse and mental illnesses, but not a full-blown manic episode. Cyclothymic disorder, or cyclothymia, is a diagnosis used for a mild form of bipolar disorder.

The combined prevalence of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia is estimated at 2. A family history of bipolar disorder is the strongest risk factor for the condition, and the level of risk increases with the degree of kinship.

As mentioned previously, bipolar disorders are characterized by manic and depressive episodes. In children, manic episodes may present as an excessively silly or joyful mood that is unusual for the child or an uncharacteristically irritable temperament and are accompanied by unusual behavioral changes, such as decreased need for sleep, risk-seeking behavior, and distractibility. Depressive episodes may present as a persistent, sad mood, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and loss of interest in previously enjoyable child abuse and mental illnesses. Behavioral changes associated with depressive episodes may include fatigue or loss of energy, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, complaining about pain, or suicidal thoughts or plans.

Find more information about bipolar disorder on the NIMH website. Depressive disorders are among the most common mental health disorders in the United States. They are characterized by a sad, hopeless, empty, or irritable mood, and somatic and cognitive changes that significantly interfere with daily life.

Major depressive disorder MDD is child abuse and mental illnesses as having a depressed mood for most of the day and a marked loss of interest or pleasure, among other symptoms present nearly every day for at least a two-week period. In children and adolescents, MDD may manifest as an irritable rather than a sad disposition. MDD is thought to have many possible causes, including genetic, biological, and environmental factors.

Adverse childhood experiences and stressful life experiences are known to contribute to risk for MDD. In addition, those with closely related family members for example, parents or siblings who are diagnosed with the disorder are at increased risk. A diagnosis for MDD at a minimum requires that symptoms of depressed mood for example, feelings of sadness, emptiness, child abuse and mental illnesses, hopelessness and loss of interest or pleasure in activities are present. Additional symptoms may include significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or hypersomnia, feelings of restlessness, lethargy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, distractibility, and recurrent thoughts of death, including suicidal ideation.

Symptoms must be present for at least two-weeks and child abuse and mental illnesses significant impairment or dysfunction in daily life.

Find more information about depressive disorder on the NIMH website. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder are the most prominent of this class of disorders in children. Symptoms are typically first seen in the preschool years, child abuse and mental illnesses, and often precede the development of conduct disorder.

Children who experienced harsh, inconsistent, or neglectful child-rearing practices are at increased risk for developing ODD. Argumentative or defiant children are frequently combative with authority figures or adults and often refuse to comply with rules.

They may also deliberately annoy others or blame others for their mistakes or misbehavior. These symptoms must be evident for at least six months and observed when interacting with at least one individual who is not a sibling. Prevalence increases from childhood to adolescence and is more common among males than females. Conduct disorder may be preceded by temperamental risk factors, such as behavioral difficulties in infancy and below-average claritin drug interactions and side effects. Parental criminality, frequent changes of caregivers, large family size, familial psychopathology, and early institutional living may also contribute to risk for developing the disorder.

Community-level risk factors may include neighborhood exposure to violence, peer rejection, child abuse and mental illnesses, and association with a delinquent peer group, child abuse and mental illnesses. Children with a parent or sibling with conduct disorder or other behavioral health disorders for example, ADHD, schizophrenia, severe alcohol use disorder are more likely to develop the condition.

Children with conduct disorder often present with other disorders as well, including ADHD, learning disorders, and depression. The primary symptoms of conduct disorder include aggression to people and animals child abuse and mental illnesses example, bullying or causing physical harmdestruction cardiovascular diesase and women property for example, fire-settingdeceitfulness or theft for example, breaking and enteringand serious violations of rules for example, truancy, elopement.

Symptoms must be present for 12 months and fall into one of three subtypes depending on the age at onset childhood, adolescent, or unspecified. Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD is defined by the child abuse and mental illnesses of persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are child abuse and mental illnesses and unwanted obsessionschild abuse and mental illnesses, or repetitive and ritualistic behaviors that a person feels child abuse and mental illnesses necessary in order to control obsessions compulsions.

OCD tends to begin in childhood or adolescence, with most individuals being diagnosed by the age of The causes of OCD are largely unknown, however there is some evidence that it runs in families and is associated with environmental risk factors, such as child maltreatment or traumatic childhood events.

Prerequisites for OCD include the presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both. Obsessions may include persistent thoughts for example, of contaminationimages for example, of horrific scenesor urges for example, to jump from a window and are perceived as unpleasant and involuntary.

Compulsions include repetitive behaviors that the person is compelled to carry out ritualistically in response to an obsession or according child abuse and mental illnesses a rigid set of rules. Compulsions are carried out in an effort to prevent or reduce anxiety or distress, and yet are clearly excessive or unrealistic.

A common example of an OCD symptom is a person who is obsessed with germs and feels compelled to wash their hands excessively. OCD symptoms are time-consuming and cause significant dysfunction in daily life. The defining characteristic of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is abnormalities in one or more of five domains: Disorders in this category include schizotypal disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophreniform disorder.

The most common diagnosis in this category is schizophrenia. These symptoms are chronic and severe, significantly impairing occupational and social functioning. Childhood-onset schizophrenia defined as onset before age 13 is much rarer, affecting approximately 0. Symptoms of schizophrenia typically manifest between the ages of 16 and While family history of psychosis is often not predictive of schizophrenia, genetic predisposition correlates to risk for developing the disease.

People with schizophrenia can experience what are termed positive or negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are psychotic behaviors including:, child abuse and mental illnesses. Negative symptoms may include flat affect, disillusionment with daily life, isolating behavior, lack of motivation, and infrequent speaking, even when forced to interact, child abuse and mental illnesses. As with other forms of serious mental illness, schizophrenia is related to homelessness, involvement with the criminal justice system, and other negative outcomes.

Find more information about schizophrenia on the NIMH website. The defining characteristic of trauma- and stressor-related disorders is previous exposure to a traumatic or stressful event.

The most common disorder in this category is post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. PTSD is characterized as the development of debilitating symptoms following exposure to a traumatic or dangerous event. These can include re-experiencing symptoms from an event, such as flashbacks or nightmares, avoidance symptoms, changing a personal routine to escape having to be reminded of an event, or being hyper-aroused easily startled or tense that makes daily tasks nearly impossible to complete.

PTSD was first identified as a result of symptoms experienced by soldiers and those in war; however, other traumatic events, such as rape, child abuse, car accidents, and natural disasters have also been shown to give rise to PTSD. It is estimated that more than 7.

Risk for PTSD is separated into three categories, including pre-traumatic, peri-traumatic, and posttraumatic factors. Diagnosis of PTSD must be preceded by exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or violence. This may entail directly experiencing or witnessing the traumatic event, learning that the traumatic event occurred to a close family member or friend, or repeated exposure to distressing details of the traumatic event, child abuse and mental illnesses.

Individuals diagnosed with PTSD experience intrusive symptoms for example, recurrent upsetting dreams, flashbacks, distressing memories, intense psychological distresschild abuse and mental illnesses, avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, and negative changes in cognition and mood corresponding with the traumatic event for example, dissociative amnesia, negative beliefs about oneself, persistent negative affect, feelings of detachment or estrangement.

They also experience significant changes in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic events, such as hypervigilance, distractibility, exaggerated startle response, and irritable or self-destructive behavior. Recovery Month Recovery Month promotes the societal benefits of prevention, treatment, and recovery for mental and substance use disorders. Mental Disorders Get the facts on common mental disorders, such as those related to anxiety, attention deficit, conduct, depression, schizophrenia, and trauma.

Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear or anxiety that is difficult to control and negatively and substantially impacts daily functioning.

There are three sub-types of the disorder: Bipolar and Related Disorders People with bipolar and related disorders experience atypical, dramatic swings in mood, and activity levels that go from periods of feeling intensely happy, irritable, and impulsive to periods of intense sadness and feelings of hopelessness. Individuals with this disorder experience discrete mood episodes, characterized as either a: Manic episode—abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood accompanied by increased energy or activity that substantially impairs functioning Hypomanic episode—similar to a manic episode, however not severe enough to cause serious social or occupational problems Major depressive episode—persistent depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure Mixed state—includes symptoms of both a manic episode and a major depressive episode People exhibiting these symptoms are most frequently identified as having one of two types of bipolar disorders: The average prevalence of ODD is estimated at 3.

Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD is defined by the presence of persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive and unwanted obsessionsor repetitive and ritualistic behaviors that a person feels are necessary in order to control obsessions compulsions.

 

Child abuse and mental illnesses

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