This system is used to stage cancers of the gallbladder as well as cancers that start in the cystic duct the tube that carries bile away from the gallbladder. The gallbladder staging system uses the pathologic stage also called the surgical stage which is determined by examining the tissue removed during an operation.
This is based on the results of a physical exam, biopsy, and imaging tests. The clinical stage will be used to help plan treatment. Numbers or letters after T, N, and M provide more details about each of these factors, cancer and sale.
Higher numbers mean the cancer is more advanced. For dog constipation and antibiotics on this see Cancer Staging, cancer and sale. Cancer is only in the epithelium the inner layer of the gallbladder and has not grown into deeper layers of the gallbladder Tis.
The cancer has grown through the muscle layer into the fibrous tissue on the side of the peritoneum the lining of the abdominal cavity T2a. The cancer has grown through the muscle layer into the fibrous tissue on the side of the liver, but has not invaded the cancer and sale T2b. It has spread to no more than 3 cancer and sale lymph nodes N1. The tumor has grown into one of the main blood vessels leading into the liver portal vein or hepatic artery or it has grown into 2 or more structures outside of the liver T4.
It may or may not have spread to no more than 3 nearby lymph nodes N0 or N1. The primary tumor may or may not have grown outside the gallbladder.
The cancer has spread to 4 or more nearby lymph nodes N2. The cancer may or may not have spread to nearby lymph nodes. It has spread to distant sites such as the liver, peritoneum the lining of the abdomen [belly]cancer and sale, or the lungs M1. The grade describes how closely the cancer cells look like normal cancer and sale cells when seen with a microscope.
Low-grade cancers G1 tend cancer and sale grow and spread more slowly than high-grade G3 cancers. Most of the time, the outlook is better for Grade 1 and Grade 2 cancers than it is for Grade 3 cancers of the same stage for gallbladder cancer. The specific type of gallbladder cancer you have can influence your outlook. Rare cancer types such as cialis and insomnia and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder tend to have a worse prognosis outlook than adenocarcinomas the most common type and papillary carcinomas.
Gallbladder cancers with lymphovascular invasion tend to have a poor prognosis. If the entire gallbladder tumor can be removed with surgery, it can impact the overall outlook. Cancers that can be removed completely by surgery tend to have a better outlook than those that cannot. It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes N0 or to distant sites M0. The tumor has grown into the lamina propria or the muscle layer muscularis T1.
It has not spread to distant sites M0. T4 N0 or N1 M0, cancer and sale. Any T N2 M0. Any T Any N M1.