Magnesium, an abundant calcium and magnesium for blood pressure in the body, is naturally present in calcium and magnesium for blood pressure foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines such as antacids and laxatives.
Magnesium is a cofactor in more than enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation [ ]. Magnesium is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis. It contributes to the structural development of bone and is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and the antioxidant glutathione.
Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, a process that is important to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm [ 3 ].
Normal serum magnesium concentrations range between 0. Hypomagnesemia is defined as a serum magnesium level less than 0, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure. Magnesium homeostasis is largely controlled by the kidney, which typically excretes about mg magnesium into the urine each day [ 2 ].
Urinary excretion calcium and magnesium for blood pressure reduced when magnesium status is low [ 1 ]. Assessing magnesium status is difficult because most magnesium is inside cells or in bone [ 3 ]. The most commonly used and readily available calcium and magnesium for blood pressure for assessing magnesium status is measurement of serum magnesium concentration, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure, even though serum levels have little correlation with total body magnesium levels or concentrations in specific tissues [ 6 ].
Other methods for assessing magnesium status include measuring magnesium concentrations in erythrocytes, saliva, and urine; measuring ionized magnesium concentrations in blood, plasma, or serum; and conducting a magnesium-loading or "tolerance" test. No single method is considered satisfactory [ 7 ]. Some experts [ 4 ] but not others [ 3 ] consider the tolerance test in which urinary magnesium calcium and magnesium for blood pressure measured after parenteral infusion of a dose of magnesium to be the best method to assess magnesium status in adults.
To comprehensively evaluate magnesium status, both laboratory tests and a clinical assessment might be required [ 6 ].
DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and sex, include:. Table 1 lists the current RDAs for magnesium [ 1 ].
For infants from birth to 12 months, the FNB established an AI for magnesium that is equivalent to the mean intake of magnesium in healthy, breastfed infants, with added solid foods for ages 7—12 months. Magnesium is widely distributed in plant and animal foods and in beverages. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, are good sources [ 13 ]. In general, foods containing dietary fiber provide magnesium.
Magnesium is also added to some breakfast cereals and other fortified foods. Some types of food processing, such as refining grains in ways that remove the nutrient-rich germ and bran, lower magnesium content substantially [ 1 ]. Selected food sources of magnesium are listed in Table 2.
Food and Drug Administration FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet. The DV for magnesium used for the values in Table 2 is mg for adults and children age 4 years and older [ 11 ].
This DV, however, is changing to mg as the updated Nutrition and Supplement Facts labels are implemented [ 12 ]. The updated labels must appear on food products and dietary supplements beginning in Januarybut they can be used now [ 13 ]. FDA does not require food labels to list magnesium content unless a food has been fortified with this nutrient.
Magnesium supplements are available in a calcium and magnesium for blood pressure of forms, including magnesium oxide, citrate, and chloride [ 23 ]. The Supplement Facts panel on a dietary supplement label declares the amount of elemental magnesium in the product, not the weight of the entire magnesium-containing compound. Absorption of magnesium from different kinds of magnesium supplements varies. Forms of magnesium that dissolve well in liquid are more completely absorbed in the gut than less soluble forms [ 214 ].
Small studies have found that magnesium in the aspartate, citrate, lactate, and chloride forms is absorbed more completely and is more bioavailable than magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate [ ]. Magnesium is a primary ingredient in some laxatives [ 20 ]. Magnesium is also included in some remedies for heartburn and upset stomach due to acid indigestion [ 20 ]. Dietary surveys of people in the United States consistently show that intakes of magnesium are lower than recommended amounts.
An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES of — found that a majority of Americans of all ages ingest less magnesium from food than their respective EARs; adult men aged 71 years and older and adolescent females are most likely to have low intakes [ 24 ].
In a study using data from NHANES — to assess mineral intakes among adults, average intakes of magnesium from food alone were higher among users of dietary supplements mg for men and mg for women, equal to or slightly exceeding their respective EARs than among nonusers mg for calcium and magnesium for blood pressure and for women [ 25 ]. When supplements were included, average total intakes of magnesium were mg for men and mg for women, well above EAR levels.
No current data on magnesium status in the United States are available. Determining dietary intake of magnesium is the usual proxy for assessing magnesium status.
NHANES has not determined serum magnesium levels in its participants since [ 26 ], and magnesium is not evaluated in routine electrolyte testing in hospitals and clinics [ 2 ].
Symptomatic magnesium deficiency due to low dietary intake in otherwise-healthy people is uncommon because the kidneys limit urinary excretion of this mineral [ 3 ]. Early signs of magnesium deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness. As magnesium deficiency worsens, numbness, tingling, muscle contractions and cramps, seizures, personality changes, abnormal heart rhythms, and coronary spasms can occur [ 12 ].
Severe calcium and magnesium for blood pressure deficiency can result in hypocalcemia or hypokalemia low serum calcium or potassium levels, respectively because mineral homeostasis is disrupted [ 2 ]. Magnesium inadequacy can occur when intakes fall below the RDA but are above the amount required to prevent overt deficiency.
The following groups are more likely than others to be at risk of magnesium inadequacy because they typically consume insufficient amounts or they have medical conditions or take medications that reduce magnesium absorption from the gut or increase losses from the body. Resection or bypass of the small intestine, especially the ileum, typically leads to malabsorption and magnesium loss [ 2 ].
The magnesium loss appears to be secondary to higher concentrations of glucose in the kidney that increase urine output [ 2 ]. Magnesium deficiency is common in people with chronic alcoholism [ 2 ]. In these individuals, poor dietary intake and nutritional status; gastrointestinal problems, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure, including vomiting, diarrhea, and steatorrhea fatty stools resulting from pancreatitis; renal dysfunction with excess excretion of magnesium into the urine; phosphate depletion; vitamin D deficiency; acute alcoholic ketoacidosis; and hyperaldosteronism secondary to liver disease can all contribute to decreased magnesium status [ 229 ].
Older adults have lower dietary intakes of magnesium than younger adults [ 2330 ]. In addition, magnesium absorption from the gut decreases and renal magnesium excretion increases with age [ 31 ].
Older adults are also more likely to have chronic diseases or take medications that alter magnesium status, which can increase their risk of magnesium depletion [ 132 ]. Habitually low intakes of magnesium induce changes in biochemical pathways that can increase the risk of illness over time. This section focuses on four diseases and disorders in which magnesium might be involved: Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Studies to date, however, have found that magnesium supplementation lowers blood pressure, at best, to only a small extent. A meta-analysis of 12 clinical trials found that magnesium supplementation for 8—26 weeks in hypertensive participants resulted in only a small reduction 2. The authors of another meta-analysis of 22 studies with 1, normotensive and hypertensive adults concluded that magnesium supplementation for 3—24 weeks decreased systolic calcium and magnesium for blood pressure pressure by 3—4 mmHg and calcium and magnesium for blood pressure blood pressure by 2—3 mmHg [ 34 ].
A diet containing more magnesium because of added fruits and vegetables, more low-fat or non-fat dairy products, and less fat overall was shown to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure by an average of 5. However, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure, this Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH diet also increases intakes of other nutrients, such as potassium and calcium, that are associated with reductions in blood pressure, so any independent contribution of magnesium cannot be determined.
Several prospective studies have calcium and magnesium for blood pressure associations between magnesium intakes and heart disease. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study assessed heart disease risk factors and levels of serum magnesium in a cohort of 14, white and African-American men and women aged 45 to 64 years at baseline [ 36 ].
Over an average of 12 years of follow-up, individuals in the highest quartile of the normal physiologic range of serum magnesium at least 0. However, dietary magnesium intakes had no association with risk of sudden cardiac death. Another prospective study tracked 88, female nurses in the United States to determine whether serum magnesium levels measured early in the study and magnesium intakes from food and supplements best cell phone and cheapest plan every 2 to 4 years were associated with sudden cardiac death over 26 years of follow-up [ 37 ].
Another prospective population study of 7, adults aged 20 to 75 years in the Netherlands who did not have cardiovascular disease found that low urinary magnesium excretion levels a marker for low dietary magnesium intake were associated with a higher risk of ischemic buspar and overeating disease over a median follow-up period of Plasma magnesium concentrations were not associated with risk of ischemic heart disease [ 38 ].
Higher magnesium intakes diabetes mellitus physical and psychological problems reduce the risk of stroke, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure.
One limitation of such observational studies, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure, however, is the possibility of confounding with other nutrients or dietary components that could also affect the risk of stroke. A large, well-designed clinical trial is needed to better understand the contributions of magnesium from food and dietary supplements to heart health and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease [ 41 ]. Diets with higher amounts of magnesium are associated with a significantly lower risk of diabetes, possibly because of the important role of magnesium in glucose metabolism [ 4243 ].
Hypomagnesemia might worsen insulin resistance, a condition that often dietary fat and diabetes control diabetes, or it might be a consequence of insulin resistance [ 44 ].
Diabetes leads to increased urinary losses of magnesium, and the subsequent magnesium inadequacy might impair insulin secretion and action, thereby worsening diabetes control [ 3 ]. Most investigations of magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes have been prospective cohort studies. A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes included 13 studies with a total ofparticipants and 24, cases of diabetes [ 46 ].
The mean length of follow-up ranged from 4 to 20 years. Investigators found an inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-responsive fashion, but this association achieved statistical significance only in overweight body mass index [BMI] 25 or higher but not normal-weight individuals BMI less than Again, a limitation of these observational studies is the possibility of confounding with other dietary components or lifestyle or environmental variables that are correlated with magnesium intake.
Only a few small, short-term clinical trials have examined the potential effects of supplemental magnesium on control of type 2 diabetes and the results are conflicting [ 4347 ]. After 30 days of supplementation, plasma, cellular, and urine magnesium levels increased in participants receiving the larger dose of the supplement, and their glycemic control improved.
The American Diabetes Association states that there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of magnesium to cell wall rigidity and asthma glycemic control in people with diabetes [ 47 ]. It further notes that there is no clear scientific evidence that vitamin and mineral supplementation benefits people with diabetes who do not have underlying nutritional deficiencies, calcium and magnesium for blood pressure.
Magnesium is involved in bone formation and influences the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts [ 51 ]. Magnesium also affects the concentrations of both parathyroid hormone and the active form of vitamin D, which are major regulators of bone homeostasis. Several population-based studies have found positive associations between magnesium intake and bone mineral cipro and white spots in both men and women [ 52 ].
Other research has found that women with osteoporosis have lower serum magnesium levels than women with osteopenia and those who do not have osteoporosis or osteopenia [ 53 ].
These and other findings indicate that magnesium deficiency might be a risk factor for osteoporosis [ 51 ]. Although limited in number, studies suggest that increasing magnesium intakes from food or supplements might increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal and elderly women [ 1 ].
Diets that provide recommended levels of magnesium enhance bone health, but further research is needed to elucidate the role of magnesium in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. Magnesium deficiency is related to factors that promote headaches, including neurotransmitter release and vasoconstriction [ 55 ]. People who experience migraine headaches have lower levels of serum and tissue magnesium than those who do not.
However, research on the use of magnesium supplements to prevent or reduce symptoms of migraine headaches is limited. The authors of a review on migraine prophylaxis suggested that taking mg magnesium twice a day, either alone or in combination with medication, can prevent migraines [ 56 ]. In their evidence-based guideline update, the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society concluded that magnesium therapy is "probably effective" for migraine prevention [ 57 ].