Contact your local county Extension office through our County Office List. Print this fact sheet. Vitamins are essential nutrients found in foods. They perform specific and vital functions in a variety of body systems, and are crucial for maintaining optimal health. The two different types of vitamins are fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
Fat-soluble vitamins — vitamins A, D, E and K — dissolve in fat before they are absorbed in the bloodstream to carry out their b complex vitamins and muscle weakness. Excesses of these vitamins are stored in the liver, and are not needed every day in the diet. For more information on fat-soluble vitamins, see fact sheet 9. A, D, E, and K. In contrast, water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are not stored by b complex vitamins and muscle weakness body.
Since they are eliminated in urine, we require a continuous daily supply in our diet. The water-soluble vitamins include the vitamin B-complex group and vitamin C. Water-soluble vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage or preparation, b complex vitamins and muscle weakness. Proper storage and preparation of food can minimize vitamin loss. To reduce vitamin loss, always refrigerate fresh produce, keep milk and grains away from strong light, and use cooking water from vegetables to prepare soups.
Eight of the water-soluble vitamins are known as the vitamin B-complex group: The B vitamins are widely distributed in foods,and their influence is felt in many parts of the body. They function as coenzymes that help clomid pills and ovulation body obtain energy from food. The B vitamins are also important for normal appetite, good vision, and healthy skin, nervous system, and red blood cell formation. Thiamin, or vitamin B1, helps to release energy from foods, promotes normal appetite, and is important in maintaining proper nervous system function.
Food Sources for Thiamin. Sources include peas, pork, liver, and legumes. Most commonly, b complex vitamins and muscle weakness, thiamin is found in whole grains and fortified grain products such as cereal, and enriched products like bread, pasta, rice, and tortillas.
The process of enrichment adds back nutrients that are lost when grains are processed. Among the nutrients added during the enrichment process are thiamin B1niacin B3riboflavin B2folate and iron. These values are closely tied to calorie expenditure. Under-consumption of thiamin is rare in the United States due to wide availability of enriched grain products.
However, low calorie diets as well as diets high in refined and processed carbohydrates may place one at risk for thiamin deficiency. Alcoholics are especially prone to thiamin deficiency because excess alcohol consumption often replaces food or meals.
Symptoms of thiamin deficiency include: Thiamin deficiency is currently not a problem in the United States. Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, helps to b complex vitamins and muscle weakness energy from foods, promotes good vision, and healthy skin.
It also helps to convert the amino acid tryptophan which makes up protein into niacin. Food Sources for Riboflavin. Sources include liver, eggs, dark green vegetables, legumes, whole and enriched grain products, and milk. Ultraviolet light is known to destroy riboflavin, which is why most milk is packaged in opaque containers instead of clear. Like thiamin, these values are closely tied to energy expenditure. Under consumption of riboflavin is rare in the United States.
However, b complex vitamins and muscle weakness, it has been known to occur with alcoholism, malignancy, hyperthyroidism, and in the elderly. Symptoms of deficiency include cracks at the corners of the mouth, dermatitis on nose and lips, light sensitivity, cataracts, and a sore, red tongue.
Niacin, or vitamin B3, is involved in energy production, normal enzyme function, digestion, promoting normal appetite, healthy skin, and nerves. Food Sources for Niacin. Sources include liver, fish, poultry, meat, peanuts, whole and enriched grain products.
These values are closely tied to energy expenditure. Niacin deficiency is not a problem in the United States. However, it is known to occur with alcoholism, protein malnourishment, low calorie diets, and diets high in refined carbohydrates. Pellagra is the disease state that occurs as a result of severe niacin deficiency. Symptoms include cramps, nausea, mental confusion, and skin problems. Consuming large doses of niacin supplements may cause flushed skin, rashes, or liver damage Table 2.
Over consumption of niacin is not a problem if it is obtained through food. What is Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6, otherwise known as pyridoxine, pyridoxal or pyridoxamine, aids in protein metabolism cholesterol and cancer red blood cell formation. Food Sources for Vitamin B6. Sources include pork, meats, whole grains and cereals, legumes, and green, leafy vegetables.
How much Vitamin B6. For infants, breast milk and most infant formulas contain enough vitamin B6. Deficiency symptoms include skin disorders, dermatitis, cracks at corners of mouth, anemia, kidney stones, and nausea. A vitamin B6 deficiency in infants can cause mental confusion. Too much Vitamin B6. Over consumption is rare, but excess doses of vitamin B6 over b complex vitamins and muscle weakness have been known to result in nerve damage Table 2.
Folate, also known as folic acid or folacin, aids in protein metabolism, promoting red blood cell formation, and lowering the risk for neural tube birth defects.
Folate may also play a role in controlling homocysteine levels, thus reducing the risk for coronary heart disease. Food Sources for Folate. Sources of folate include liver, kidney, dark green leafy vegetables, meats, fish, whole grains, fortified grains and cereals, legumes, and citrus fruits.
Not all whole grain products are fortified with folate. B complex vitamins and muscle weakness the nutrition label to see if folic acid has been added.
Folate deficiency affects cell growth and protein production, which can lead to overall impaired growth. Deficiency symptoms also include anemia and diarrhea. A folate deficiency in women who are pregnant or of child bearing age may result in the delivery of a baby with neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
Over consumption of folate offers no known benefits, and may mask B12 deficiency as well as interfere with some medications Table 2. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, aids in the building of genetic material, production of normal red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system, b complex vitamins and muscle weakness.
Food Sources for Vitamin B Vitamin B12 can only be found only in foods of animal origin such as meats, liver, kidney, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, oysters, shellfish. Some fortified foods may contain vitamin B How much Vitamin B For those over the age of fifty, the dietary guidelines recommend consuming vitamin B12 in its crystalline form fortified foods or multivitamin.
Vitamin B12 deficiency most commonly affects strict vegetarians those who eat no animal productsinfants of vegan mothers, and the elderly. Symptoms b complex vitamins and muscle weakness deficiency include anemia, fatigue, neurological disorders, and degeneration of nerves resulting in numbness and tingling.
In order to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency, a dietary supplement should be taken. Some people develop a B12 deficiency because they cannot absorb the vitamin through their stomach lining, b complex vitamins and muscle weakness. This can be treated through vitamin B12 injections. Biotin helps release energy from carbohydrates and aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates from food.
Food Sources for Biotin. Sources of Biotin include liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, most fresh vegetables, yeast breads and cereals. Biotin is also made by b complex vitamins and muscle weakness bacteria. Biotin deficiency is uncommon under normal circumstances, but symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, depression, muscle pains, heart abnormalities and anemia.
What is Pantothenic Acid. Pantothenic Acid is involved in energy production, and aids in the formation of hormones and the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates from food. Food Sources for Pantothenic Acid, b complex vitamins and muscle weakness. Sources include liver, kidney, meats, egg yolk, whole grains, and legumes. Pantothenic Acid is also made by intestinal bacteria. How much Pantothenic Acid. Pantothenic Acid deficiency is uncommon due to its wide availability in most foods.
Too much Pantothenic Acid. No problems with overconsumption are known for Pantothenic Acid. Rarely, diarrhea and water retention will occur with excessive amounts. The body needs vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate, to remain in proper working condition. Vitamin C benefits the body by holding cells together through collagen synthesis; collagen is a connective tissue that holds muscles, bones, and other tissues together.
Vitamin C also aids in wound healing, bone and tooth formation, strengthening blood vessel walls, improving immune system function, increasing absorption and utilization of iron, and acting as an antioxidant.