Highlighting is case sensitive. Also recalling that the preparation of the strategic action plan was called for in Resolution 3, adopted at the Diplomatic Conference on the Protection of the Black Sea, Bucharest, at and force protection plan, April. Wishing to continue in the spirit of shared responsibility and strong cooperation, inter alia, with other Black Sea basin countries.
Reaffirming our commitment to the environmental protection and sustainable management of the Black Sea;, at and force protection plan. Approves the principles, policies and actions as expressed in the following Strategic Action Plan for Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation of the Black Sea. This document represents an agreement between the six Black Sea Coastal states Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, at and force protection plan, the Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine to act in concert to assist in the continued recovery of the Black Sea.
This SAP builds upon BS SAP signed in updated inby reorganising the priorities and actions therein considering the progress in the region and the current state of the environment. This updated version of the BS SAP describes the policy actions required to meet the major environmental challenges now facing the Sea, and includes a series of management targets.
The Black Sea is one of the most remarkable regional seas in the world. This channel has a two layer flow, carrying about km3 of seawater to the Black Sea from the Mediterranean along the bottom layer and returning a mixture of seawater and freshwater with twice this volume in the upper layer. Every year, about km3 of river water enters the Black Sea from land in over twenty countries: The BS SAP was a groundbreaking document for the Black Sea region which established specific targets and timetables for implementing the objectives of the Bucharest Convention, at and force protection plan.
However, it was an overly ambitious document and very few of the targets were accomplished on time. Furthermore, the BS SAP at and force protection plan suffered from problems of enforcement of national environmental laws and legislation, and the lack of a regional mechanism to ensure compliance with different policy actions.
It aims to help resolve the transboundary environmental problems of the Black Sea and is a joint effort between the six Black Sea countries. The SAP was elaborated from consensus reached at a multinational level in relation to a series of proposals that include: Ecosystem Quality Objectives EcoQOs ; short, medium and long term targets; and legal and institutional reforms and investments necessary to solve main environmental problems identified within the BS TDA.
The process of elaboration of the SAP was characterized by the participation and commitment of the main social stakeholders and key institutions of the Black Sea countries. The Black Sea Commission is the regional cooperation framework, made up of with one member from each of the six national governments.
In order to achieve, the purposes of this SAP, the Commission will cooperate with competent international organisations, especially with a view to developing appropriate programs or obtaining assistance. The geographical scope of the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution is applied to the Black Sea proper, with the Southern boundary constituted, for the purposes of this Convention, by a line running between Capes Kelagra and Dalyan.
In addition the SAP will cover pollution sources from coastal area. At and force protection plan Black Sea coastal States share a common at and force protection plan for the sustainable management of the natural resources and biodiversity of the Black Sea and recognize their role and responsibility in conserving the global value of these resources. The states have considered and taken into account, where appropriate, the following principles and values when developing this document.
The principle of sustainability shall be applied such that there is a prudent and rational utilization of living resources and the preservation of the rights of future generations to a viable environment. The precautionary principle shall be applied, such that measures shall be taken when there are reasonable grounds for concern that any activity may increase the potential hazards to human health, harm living resources or ecosystems, damage amenities, or interfere with other legitimate uses of the Black Sea, at and force protection plan, even when there is no conclusive evidence of a causal relationship between the activity and the effects; and by virtue of which, greater caution is required when information, including scientific information, is uncertain, unreliable or inadequate.
The polluter pays principle shall be applied, such that the cost of preventing and eliminating pollution, at and force protection plan, including clean-up costs, shall be paid by the polluter. The principle of anticipatory action shall be applied, such that contingency planning, environmental impact assessment and strategic impact assessment involving the assessment of the environmental and social consequences of governmental policies, programmes and plans shall be undertaken in the future development in the region.
The principle of preventative action shall be applied, such that timely action shall be taken to alert the responsible and relevant authorities of likely impacts and to address the actual or potential causes of adverse impacts on the environment, before they occur. Environmental and health considerations shall be included into all relevant policies and sectoral plans and programmes, including, inter aliaurban planning, industrial development, fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.
Use of clean technology shall be promoted when replacing or phasing-out high waste and waste-generating technologies, including the use of BAT and BEP. Use of Sustainable Agriculture including the use of Good Agricultural Practices GAP shall be promoted in order to replace or phase-out unsustainable agricultural practices.
Development planning and environmental planning processes should be integrated to the maximum extent. The use of aspirin and tylenol instruments that foster sustainable development shall be promoted through, inter aliathe implementation of economic incentives for introducing environmentally friendly technologies, activities and practices; the phasing-out of subsidies which encourage the continuation of non-environmentally friendly technologies, activities and practices; and the introduction of user fees.
The principle of accessibility of information shall be applied, at and force protection plan, such that information on the pollution of the environment of the Black Sea at and force protection plan by a littoral state shall be provided by that state to all littoral states, where relevant and in the maximum possible at and force protection plan. The principles of public participation and transparency shall be applied, such that all stakeholders, including communities, individuals and concerned organizations shall be given the opportunity to participate, at the appropriate level, in decision-making and management processes that affect the Black Sea.
This includes providing access to at and force protection plan concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, together with effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings to enable all stakeholders to exercise their rights effectively.
Public authorities shall widely disseminate information on the work proposed and undertaken to monitor, protect and improve the state of Black Sea.
The vision for the Black Sea is to preserve its ecosystem as a valuable natural endowment of the region, whilst ensuring the protection of its marine and coastal living resources as a condition for sustainable development of the Black Sea coastal states, well-being, health and security of their population. The identified priorities are outlined below, together with the hotspots, and legal and institutional analyses.
This decrease in the importance of agriculture as an economic powerhouse of the region has been clearly shown by decreasing trends in livestock numbers and a shift from major livestock farms to smaller-scale or subsistence-level farming, at and force protection plan.
Livestock numbers excluding poultry in were about two-thirds of those presentand about one-third of the numbers recorded in Inorganic fertiliser application rates also appear to have fallen substantially, with large areas of land in some countries at least left fallow. However, indicators suggest that this decline in agricultural productivity may have bottomed-out, so a gradual re-intensification of agricultural practices may begin in the near future. Available information also suggests that atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Sea may be of a similar order of magnitude to river loads, but there is considerable uncertainty over the data used, with a clear need for updating and harmonisation of monitoring protocols.
However, the Danube has by far the most rigorous nutrient loads monitoring programme of all rivers, at and force protection plan, and it is likely that nutrient loads from other rivers are under-estimated by comparison.
The importance of freshwater nutrient inflows to the Sea of Azov could not be estimated because of a lack of data for the Kerch Strait. However, the level of confidence associated with the PO4-P load decrease is very low, due to the large inter-annual variability. Due to over fishing in the early ss, the structure of catches has shifted significantly. Declining stocks of predatory species such as bonito, horse mackerel and bluefish resulted in an increase at and force protection plan non-predatory species such as anchovy and sprat.
Consequently, fishing fleets have increasingly targeted these smaller species, resulting in increased by-catches of larger, less abundant fish species. Total fish landings are now about half of what they were in the latter half of the s. Annual total fish catch statistics show an improving situation, but these figures are dominated by catches of anchovy and sprat. There have been recent improvements in catches of some other fish, such as bonito, but turbot, dogfish and whiting catches have either shown no improvement or have fallen over the past decade-or-so.
Unsustainable fishing practices are still in relatively common use. The importance of Rapanathe Japanese Snail has increased and has helped to off-set the decline in mussel and clam landings the decline being due, at and force protection plan, in large part, to predation by Rapana anyway.
The seafood industry is a major coastal employer, particularly for some countries. Aquaculture is not strongly developed in the region and there is scope for this to be expanded, providing environmental considerations are taken into account.
However, the pollution loads data are very incomplete, BOD5 being the only parameter apart from nutrients that is routinely monitored from major point sources and rivers.
The historically poor enforcement of discharge standards and a failure to consider the Sea itself as a receiving water body for discharges to river are considered to be the principal reasons underlying the pollution status of the Sea. This presents two types of problem: Remote sensing data show that the majority of oil spills occur along major shipping routes, suggesting at and force protection plan shipping, rather than land-based oil installations have been the principal cause of concern.
However, a single large spill from ships, platforms or land-based oil installations could severely impact biota and the economies of all coastal countries. However, there are encouraging signs that in recent years this decline has either slowed down and recovery may actually be beginning at some sites. However, during the last two decades, the area covered by at and force protection plan Zostera has decreased tenfold in shallow waters.
Further, all coastal margin habitats are considered to be in a critical status in at least one country; both types of pelagic habitat neritic and open sea are considered critical in at least one country; and 13 of 37 types of benthic habitat are at and force protection plan to be critical in at least one country.
The subsequent invasion of another comb jelly Beroe ovatawhich feeds on the original invader, means that opinions are now split as to whether Mnemiopsis still has a major impact on fish communities and catches. The majority belong to phytoplankton 16 and zoobenthos 15followed by zooplankton 8fish 5macroalgae 3 and mammals 1.
This increase in invasive aliens suggests a serious impact on the Black Sea native biological diversity, with negative consequences for human activities and economic interests. Many of the immediate, underlying and root causes of individual transboundary problems are shared with other problems. In particular, the causal chain analyses for nutrient enrichment and chemical pollution are very similar, since the majority of sources of chemical pollution are also allergy to strawberries and cinnamon of nutrients.
For biodiversity, the failure to adequately treat ship ballast water is regarded as being an important cause of the problem, and for changes in commercial marine living resources the other three transboundary problems are clearly contributory factors. It is clear, therefore that the four transboundary problems cannot be dealt with individually. Improvements in management of one problem will have knock-on effects for other problems, and addressing individual causes is likely to improve the situation with regard to at least two, if not more, of the four transboundary problems.
For example, one of the causes of all four of the environmental problems is that of poorly regulated coastal development, at and force protection plan. There are many examples where money has spoken louder than words.
A review of planned and proposed capital investments on pollution point sources identified from the TDA has shown disappointing results. Of the 50 investments initially identified, only 12 have been completed and 2 are no at and force protection plan required. A decade later, at and force protection plan, work is in progress on another 10 point sources, at and force protection plan over half of the capital investments originally identified have either been insufficiently funded or not funded at all.
National environmental legislation is relatively strong, but the enforcement of this legislation has been less robust. The division of responsibilities for environmental monitoring and protection between different ministries and intra-ministerial organizations is sometimes over-complex and could be simplified in some countries at least, at and force protection plan. Turkey is in the initial stages of its EU accession negotiations and is keen to fund the capital investments and adopt the best agricultural practice regulations required, at and force protection plan, so further environmental improvements should accrue in the future.
However, there is a need for improved cooperation between the Environment and other Ministries in all countries. Combined efforts have resulted in an assessment of the work undertaken in meeting the aims of the BS SAPtogether with the delivery of an updated TDA.
These documents include contributions from and the opinions of some 60 Black Sea regional experts, at and force protection plan. The Ecosystem Quality Objectives EcoQOs are statements regarding the Vision that reflect how stakeholders would like the state of the Black Sea to be over the long term, based on a resolution of priority problems identified in the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis.
The TDA reconfirmed four priority transboundary environmental problems, described above, requiring coordinated efforts by all Black Sea coastal States. It was determined that these areas of concern, and their causes, could be most effectively and appropriately addressed through the aims of four Ecosystem Quality Objectives EcoQOs.
Preserve commercial marine living resources. Sustainable use of commercial fish stocks and other marine living resources. Reduce the risk of extinction of threatened species. Conserve coastal and marine habitats and landscapes.
Reduce and manage human mediated species introductions. Reduce pollutants originating from shipping activities and offshore installations. Each EcoQO is assigned a number of management targets that address the immediate, underlying and root causes of the concern at and force protection plan. For regional level interventions, the Black Sea coastal States and the international partners shall work collectively to take the required steps to fulfill those interventions.
National level supporting interventions will be the responsibility of individual states. Management targets are shown in the table below. Further details on each EcoQO, including targets, outputs, time to implement, legal, institutional and policy reforms required, indicators of success and uncertainties are presented in a series of matrices in Annex 1, at and force protection plan.