Niacinalso known as nicotinic acidis an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3an essential human nutrient. It has the anxiety and vitamin b3 C 6 H 5 NO 2 and belongs to the group of the pyridinecarboxylic acid.
Niacin is obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foodswith highest contents in fortified packaged foodstuna, some vegetable and other animal sources. Some countries require its addition to grains.
Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also charlotte asthma and allergy observed in pandemic deficiency diseaseswhich are caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins niacin, vitamin Cthiaminvitamin Dand vitamin A and are usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridinewith a carboxyl group COOH at the 3-position.
Other forms of vitamin B 3 include the corresponding amide nicotinamide niacinamidewhere the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group CONH 2as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Niacin and nicotinamide are both precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP in vivo. Niacin supplementation has not been found useful for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin but appears to be effective in those not taking a statin, anxiety and vitamin b3.
Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing. Niacin and niacinamide are used for prevention and treatment of pellagra. Niacin has sometimes been used in addition to other lipid-lowering medications.
Niacin is contraindicated with active liver diseasepersistent elevated serum transaminasesactive peptic ulcer diseaseor arterial bleeding, anxiety and vitamin b3. The most common adverse effects are flushing e. These can be minimized by initiating therapy at low dosages, increasing dosage gradually, and avoiding administration on an empty stomach.
Flushing usually lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes, though anxiety and vitamin b3 can sometimes last up to two hours. It is sometimes accompanied by a prickly or itching sensation, in particular, in areas covered by clothing. Taking niacin with meals also helps reduce this side effect. Acquired tolerance will also help reduce flushing; after several weeks of a consistent dose, most patients no longer experience flushing. Prostaglandin PGD 2 is the primary cause of the flushing reaction, with serotonin appearing to have a secondary role in this reaction.
Gastrointestinal complaints, such as indigestionnausea and liver failurehave also been reported. Hepatotoxicity is possibly related to metabolism via amidation resulting in NAD production. Side effects of heart arrhythmias have also been reported. Particularly the time-release variety, at extremely high doses, can cause acute toxic reactions.
This maculopathy is reversible after niacin intake ceases, anxiety and vitamin b3. Niacin in doses used to lower cholesterol levels has been associated with birth defects in laboratory animals, with possible consequences for infant development in pregnant women. Between and more than 3 million Americans were affected by pellagra, with more thandeaths. Joseph Goldberger was assigned to study pellagra by the Surgeon General of the United Anxiety and vitamin b3 and produced good results.
In the late s, studies by Tom Spies anxiety and vitamin b3, Marion Blankenhorn, and Clark Cooper established that niacin cured pellagra in humans. The disease was greatly reduced as a result.
Anxiety and vitamin b3 present, niacin deficiency is sometimes seen in developed countries, anxiety and vitamin b3, and it is usually apparent in anxiety and vitamin b3 of poverty, malnutrition, and chronic alcoholism. A cooking technique called nixtamalization i. For this reason, people who consume corn as tortillas or hominy are not at risk of niacin deficiency.
Patients with alcoholism typically experience arthritis and greek sage intestinal permeabilityleading to negative health outcomes. Hartnup disease is a hereditary nutritional disorder resulting in niacin deficiency.
It is due to a deficit in the intestines and kidneys, making it difficult for the body to break down and absorb dietary tryptophan an essential amino acid that is utilized to synthesize niacin. The resulting condition is similar to pellagra, including symptoms of red, scaly rash, and sensitivity to sunlight. For women including those pregnant or lactatingmen and children the PRI is 1.
This is comparable to U. The UL applies to niacin as a supplement consumed as one dose, and in intended to avoid the skin flush reaction. This is because the amino acid is utilized to synthesize the vitamin. The original deadline to be in compliance was July 28,but on September 29, the FDA released a proposed rule that extended the deadline to January 1, for large companies and January 1, for small companies.
Niacin is found in a variety of whole and processed foodsincluding fortified packaged foodsmeat from various animal sources, seafoodsand spices, anxiety and vitamin b3. Plant foods and spices. The therapeutic effects of niacin are partly mediated through the activation of G protein-coupled receptorsincluding niacin receptor 1 NIACR1 and niacin receptor 2 NIACR2 which are highly expressed in adipose tissuespleenimmune cellsand keratinocytesbut not in other expected organs such as liverkidneyheart or intestine.
The mechanism behind niacin increasing HDL is not totally understood, but seems to occur in various ways. Niacin increases apolipoprotein A1 levels due to anticatabolic effects resulting in higher reverse cholesterol transport. Niacin reduces secondary outcomes associated with atherosclerosissuch as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDLvery low-density lipoprotein cholesterol VLDL-Canxiety and vitamin b3, and triglycerides TGbut increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL.
Research has been able to show the function of niacin in the pathway lipid metabolism. Riboflavinvitamin B 6 and iron are required for the process.
Several thousand tons of niacin are manufactured each year, starting from 3-methylpyridine. Niacin is available as a prescription product, and in the United States as a dietary supplement. Dietary supplement products can be immediate or slow release, the latter including inositol hexanicotinate. These are hydrolysed in the anxiety and vitamin b3 and the resulting nicotinamide is absorbed either as birth control and condom, or following its hydrolysis to nicotinic acid.
Nicotinamide is present in nature in only small amounts, anxiety and vitamin b3, however it is the main form of vitamin B3 in plasma. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the co-enzymes can occur during the course of food preparation. A prescription extended release niacin, Niaspan, has a film coating that delays release of the niacin, resulting in an absorption over a period of 8—12 hours.
The extended release formulations generally reduce vasodilation and flushing side effects, but increase the risk of hepatotoxicity compared to the immediate release cymbalta and infertility. The study resulted in the complete withdrawal of Tredaptive from the international market.
It is sold as an over-the-counter formulation, and often is marketed and labeled as niacin, facilities opertions and maintenance plan misleading consumers into thinking they are getting the active form of the medication.
While this anxiety and vitamin b3 of niacin does not cause the flushing associated with the immediate-release products, the evidence that it has lipid-modifying functions is disputed. Inwhen flour enrichment with nicotinic acid began, a headline in the popular press said "Tobacco in Your Bread. It was thought appropriate to choose a name to dissociate it from nicotineto avoid the perception that vitamins or niacin-rich food contains nicotine, or that cigarettes contain vitamins.
Niacin was first described by chemist Hugo Weidel in in his studies of nicotine. Niacin was extracted from livers by biochemist Conrad Elvehjem inwho later identified the active ingredient, then referred to as the "pellagra-preventing factor" and the "anti-blacktongue factor.
Tom Spies found that nicotinic acid cured the sufferers of pellagra. Niacin is referred to as vitamin Anxiety and vitamin b3 3 because it was the third of the B vitamins to be discovered.
It has historically been referred to as "vitamin PP", "vitamin P-P" and "PP-factor", that are derived from the term "pellagra-preventive factor". Inconcurring with earlier work in by Arizona State Universityresearchers from Pennsylvania State University working with NASA found niacin, pyridine carboxylic acids and anxiety and vitamin b3 dicarboxylic acids inside meteorites.
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